Chinese nationalism The awakening of nationalism across Asia helped shape the history of the continent.
The Enlightenment was cosmopolitan in its effort to spread the light of reason, but from the very beginning of the age there were nationalistic tendencies to be seen in varying shades. Although Rousseau himself was generally concerned with universal man in such works as… Identification of state and people Nationalism, translated into world politics, implies the identification of the state or nation with the people—or at least the desirability of determining the extent of the state according to ethnographic principles.
In the age of nationalism, but only in the age of nationalism, the principle was generally recognized that each nationality should form a state—its state—and that the state should include all members of that nationality. Formerly states, or territories under one administration, were not delineated by nationality.
Men did not give their loyalty to the nation-state but to other, different forms of political organization: The nation-state was nonexistent during the greater part of history, and for a very long time it was not even regarded as an ideal.
In the first 15 centuries of the Christian Era, the ideal was the universal world-state, not loyalty to any separate political entity. As political allegiancebefore the age of nationalism, was not determined by nationality, so civilization was not thought of as nationally determined.
Later, in the periods of the Renaissance and of Classicism, it was the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations that became a universal norm, valid for all peoples and all times. Still later, French civilization was accepted throughout Europe as the valid civilization for educated people of all nationalities.
It was only at the end of the 18th century that, for the first time, civilization was considered to be determined by nationality. It was then that the principle was put forward that a man could be educated only in his own mother tongue, not in languages of other civilizations and other times, whether they were classical languages or the literary creations of other peoples who had reached a high degree of civilization.
Cultural nationalism From the end of the 18th century on, the nationalization of education and public life went hand in hand with the nationalization of states and political loyalties.
Poets and scholars began to emphasize cultural nationalism first. They reformed the mother tongue, elevated it to the rank of a literary language, and delved deep into the national past. Thus they prepared the foundations for the political claims for national statehood soon to be raised by the people in whom they had kindled the spirit.
Before the 18th century there had been evidences of national feeling among certain groups at certain periods, especially in times of stress and conflict. The rise of national feeling to major political importance was encouraged by a number of complex developments: This large, unified territorial state, with its political and economic centralization, became imbued in the 18th century with a new spirit—an emotional fervour similar to that of religious movements in earlier periods.
Under the influence of the new theories of the sovereignty of the people and the rights of man, the people replaced the king as the centre of the nation.
State became identified with nation, as civilization became identified with national civilization. That development ran counter to the conceptions that had dominated political thought for the preceding 2, years.
Hitherto man had commonly stressed the general and the universal and had regarded unity as the desirable goal. Nationalism stressed the particular and parochialthe differences, and the national individualities.
Those tendencies became more pronounced as nationalism developed. Its less attractive characteristics were not at first apparent. In the 17th and 18th centuries the common standards of Western civilization, the regard for the universally human, the faith in reason one and the same everywhere as well as in common sense, the survival of Christian and Stoic traditions—all of these were still too strong to allow nationalism to develop fully and to disrupt society.
Thus nationalism in its beginning was thought to be compatible with cosmopolitan convictions and with a general love of mankind, especially in western Europe and North America.
European nationalism English Puritanism and nationalism The first full manifestation of modern nationalism occurred in 17th-century Englandin the Puritan revolution.
England had become the leading nation in scientific spirit, in commercial enterprisein political thought and activity. Swelled by an immense confidence in the new age, the English people felt upon their shoulders the mission of history, a sense that they were at a great turning point from which a new true reformation and a new liberty would start.
In the English revolution an optimistic humanism merged with Calvinist ethics; the influence of the Old Testament gave form to the new nationalism by identifying the English people with ancient Israel.
Surrounded by congregated multitudes, I now imagine that…I behold the nations of the earth recovering that liberty which they so long had lost; and that the people of this island are…disseminating the blessings of civilization and freedom among cities, kingdoms and nations.
English nationalism, then, was thus much nearer to its religious matrix than later nationalisms that rose after secularization had made greater progress.
The nationalism of the 18th century shared with it, however, its enthusiasm for liberty, its humanitarian character, its emphasis upon the individual and his rights and upon the human community as above all national divisions.
The rise of English nationalism coincided with the rise of the English trading middle classes. American nationalism was a typical product of the 18th century. British settlers in North America were influenced partly by the traditions of the Puritan revolution and the ideas of Locke and partly by the new rational interpretation given to English liberty by contemporary French philosophers.
American settlers became a nation engaged in a fight for liberty and individual rights.
They based that fight on current political thought, especially as expressed by Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.egyptian nationalists, frustration - The Origin of Modern Nationalist Movements. My Account.
The Origin of Modern Nationalist Movements Essays. The Origin of Modern Nationalist Movements Essays. Length: words Middle Eastern Social Movements Essay examples. The Modern Men's Movement Essay The Modern Men's Movement The 's saw the intensification of the feminist movement as a social, moral, and political force in the American arena.
They focused their attention on the systematic oppression of women in politics and business.
The Origin of Modern Nationalist Movements Essay The Egyptian nationalist movement was inspired by the Tunisian revolution. Thousands began taking the streets on January 25, , demanding the overthrow of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak The people protested poverty, vast .
Nationalism and Ethnicity: Cultural Nationalism. Gobineau's Essay on the Inequality of Races (–) with its hierarchy of three races influenced the Social Darwinian interpretations of Darwin's Origin of Species both cultural and political nationalist movements emerged in many of Napoleon's puppet regimes in Europe.
At the other extreme, and more typically, nationalist claims are focused upon the non-voluntary community of common origin, language, tradition and culture: the classic ethno-nation is a community of origin and culture, including prominently a language and customs.
The rise of nationalist movements and the modern nation-state has affected women’s political and economic participation and social freedoms. Based on the following documents, there were many opportunities and barriers that nationalist movements posed concerning women's rights .