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After discussing the concept of propaganda, the paper examines mass media in the United States and investigates whether propaganda can be issued through mass media when the government does not have direct and exclusive control of the channels of mass communication.
The paper uses the Iraq War as a case to examine the possible use of propaganda in the mass media to sway public opinion, and then looks at both government strategies and programs that the Bush administration used to influence mass media content and the relationship between corporate ownership and censorship as another means of influencing public opinion.
The mass media shapes public opinion more than anything else in society, particularly because it is a central broadcast source that has, since its inception, carried and reinforced all the cultural nuances that comprise mainstream society at any given time.
For example, we can easily tell that a 's newscast indeed comes from the 's, and we often are amused at perceiving its dated cultural contexts - though we rarely perceive anything odd about the cultural contexts of today's newscasts. Aside from the cultural context, the news items are important since they serve as the currency of public discussion and exchange.
This activity is also increasingly part of the mass media, so that Americans vicariously debate issues through the many "pundits" on forums and talk shows that, in effect, represent our "national discussion.
However, we should also consider the process by which something becomes an important issue in the mass media to begin with, and we should question whether the act of repeatedly presenting some news as a central issue can actually create a national issue that is, in reality, invalid or unwarranted.
Finally, we should search for the line between the honest presentation of information, and the dishonest propagation of propaganda. The Power of Propaganda Propaganda is deliberately misleading or deceptive information that is widely publicized in order to promote an Public opinion research paper, policy, or cause.
The main point is that the information is deliberately spread so as to sway public opinion in favor of a specific agenda created by those in power. Propaganda often contains false information or even liesand also false or hidden assumptions.
The most obvious historical example of promoting propaganda occurred in Nazi Germany when the mass media repeatedly presented "The Jewish Question" as though it were an obvious central issue - and indeed it became a central German issue since "The Jewish Question" inundated German print and airwaves.
The Nazi government used mass media to persuade the majority of Germans to believe that a very important question of the day was, "What are we going to do about all the Jews in our country?
There is always a certain amount of presumption present in all propaganda, i. Who Controls the Media? A government need not, like the former Soviet Union or the modern Chinese government, directly control all the channels of mass media in order to control the content and message of the mass media.
If, without direct control of the communication channels, a government can shape public opinion through propaganda, then the question becomes, How? How can the content and tone of national news remain unified if a government does not own all the channels of mass communication? Can propaganda become widespread and consistent even when the mass media is privately owned?
Cameron Doudu, an African writer from Ghana, was quite surprised by the content of the British media when he visited England. Doudu observed that the British media has a very specific point of view for foreign news, and he noticed that particularly, any news about Africa seemed to follow a government agenda.
He concluded, "the uniformity of thought in the British media is sometimes astounding. It is as if they all get their line about particular countries from one source"p. Doudu found that, "the FCO holds regular briefings for the media, at which the British government line on foreign countries is staked out, but with the understanding that if the correspondents who attend the briefings use anything coming out of the briefings, they won't attribute it to the Foreign Office" Doudu,p.
Doudu also makes observations that compare the U. Rather than news about Africa that is biased by government agenda, the U. Doudu writes, "Days can go by when the entire African continent ceases to exist," to the point that it seemed to him as though he "was on a completely different planet" Doudu,p.
Granted, the geopolitical significance of Africa is much less for the U. The Case of Iraq Doudu could make such observations because he traveled and could critically compare mass media content among nations, but citizens from their respective nations generally are not able to see beyond their own mass media.
For example, if we look at the global media coverage of Saddam Hussein before the United States attacked Iraq, for several months the U. For the first few months, the various national and continental media outside the U. In fact, news coverage of the Iraq issue outside the United States was mainly other national media covering how Iraq seemed a very important issue in the U.
It soon became quite apparent that the U. Americans assumed their evening news reflected world news concerns rather than narrow national interests. Ironically, America's narrow national interests actually became the primary news concern for the rest of the world.
The Master Narrative Champlin and Knoedler create the concept of a "master narrative" that they believe controls mass media content, and they assert that the government and corporate sources construct the nation's Master Narrative.
Deconstructing "Spin" We should examine this modern term, "spin. New spin is actually old propaganda - except "spin" seems more insidious and subtle since the term suggests it contains the basic truth which is merely "spun" enough to create a desired effect.
This is the post-post-modern political perspective on the value of truth.
The term "spin" is essentially "propaganda" with a new face that is "spun" to justify telling "near-truths" that are in fact plain lies.The World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) and the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) request submissions to be considered for the Janet A.
Harkness Student Paper Award, as part of the program for WAPOR’s annual conference in Public opinion research paper. Public opinion research paper. 5 stars based on reviews ashio-midori.com Essay.
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Presenters at the conference in Marrakesh can upload their presentations or papers to the online program. This allows interested members and participants the possibility of reading about the most recent research on various topics on public opinion.
An official journal of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Publishes theoretical research on opinion and communication research, Information about submitting your paper to Public Opinion Quarterly, including manuscript preparation and submission guidelines.
Instructions to authors. The latest news for Franklin County. Coverage includes local and national news, education, crime, business, lifestyle and entertainment.
The World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) and the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) request submissions to be considered for the Janet A.
Harkness Student Paper Award, as part of the program for WAPOR’s annual conference in This award is given in memory of Dr. Harkness, distinguished cross-cultural survey methodologist, who passed away in