And if so should the program change or simply come to an end? The issue of Affirmative Action AA is one that is currently being hotly debated by both policy makers and the public.
And if so should the program change or Affirmative action an annotated bibliography come to an end? The issue of Affirmative Action AA is one that is currently being hotly debated by both policy makers and the public.
Like racism itself there are many opinions all of which are run the gamut between logical and illogical and constructive and destructive. In looking at this issue through the perspective of academic literature this researcher developed two general questions regarding AA; Has Affirmative Action outlived its use in today's society?
Using these two questions as a lens creates an interesting academic picture of the issue. This work will provide a literature review that addresses the topics of this question looking specifically at literature that addresses reasoning and opinion regarding AA and why specifically it is under attack.
Literature on AA in general supports the popular public opinion that AA should be addressed in some way in both a legal and practical sense. The basis of popular public opinion is not necessarily based upon academic literature but is based on multiple media representations of conservatism denoting the general idea that government has simply overstepped its bounds in dealing with state and individual rights.
The same pundits also stress the importance of meritocracy, colorblindness, the absence of racism and the importance of eliminating and reversing the growth of government and government regulations.
Meritocracy is the kind of ideal that the literature a contests is a denial of the reality of continued racism and especially institutional racism Ledford, According to Oh, et al.
This acceptance according to the researchers is in part because the majority is not likely to see or deal with racism on a daily basis and therefore to think about it or even believe it exists.
Additionally, they have been told repeatedly, as a byproduct of diversity education that no matter ones' race he or she should be able to accomplish whatever task he or she set his or her mind to and works hard toward achieving.
Again according to Oh, et al. Again this research group affirmed that the support of this belief is founded in a self-serving bias, similar to the one noted by O'Brian et al.
In short they contend that adolescents of different races viewed AA and diversity from different perspectives, likely as a result of exposure to racism or the lack there of.
Yet, they went on to say that these same adolescents were statistically in favor of creating polices that were responsive to issues of improved diversity. The issue of AA as a policy standard is essential to the future of the ideal, as either something in need of serious change or something that should be eliminated altogether.
The intended audience is those who develop affirmative action programs and policies and is comparable to many other exploratory articles on this issue with the addition of extremely effective analogies that further a holistic view of the topic of AA.
A very limited research base and the only example I found analyzing an application of a colorblind policy can be found in Ledford Ledforddiscusses the application of race neutral policies in a French experiment and supports the application of such changes to the U.
Ledford discusses the current debate regarding race based AA and compares it to the French example which utilizes class rather than race in a race neutral legal application.
According to Ledford; "Proponents of race-conscious programs have argued that they are needed to correct centuries of racial oppression and discrimination, while many opponents push for class-oriented remedies that will compensate for economic inequalities among both underrepresented minorities and whites,"p.
The comparison is both intriguing and informative as each example the U. And France offer guided solutions to serious social problems.
The work demonstrates that system justification allows decisions regarding race to be made preferential above qualifications but that AA is only intended to be used as a guide when candidates are equally qualified.
The result then, according to the researchers, is that those who oppose AA even when used correctly are opposing systems that support a world that they already believe exists.
The application of a "colorblind" ideal that replaces race with class in AA selection and hiring practices is indeed and issue that should be further explored in the U.
This is especially important in the wake of literature that stresses how truly, ineffective AA has been even at its source application, i.
Riccucciattempts to determine the extent to which the U.Excerpt from Annotated Bibliography: Affirmative Action Lit Review Affirmative Action Review of Literature Has Affirmative Action outlived its use in today's society?ashio-midori.com · An annotated bibliography is presented on affirmative action policy in postsecondary education.
More than 40 entries mostly dated or later, represent a wide variety of resource materials that focus on the issue of educational opportunity in higher education. Major areas of concern are: employment of underrepresented ashio-midori.com?id=ED · This is an annotated bibliography of resources on race, gender, and affirmative action intended for the use of faculty who are designing courses concerning race, gender, and affirmative action, and for students and ashio-midori.com~eandersn/ashio-midori.com Affirmative Action: An Annotated Bibliography [A.
M. Babkina] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.. This guide to the literature presents descriptions of books, reports and articles dealing with all aspects of affirmative action including: Race relations; Economic aspects; Reverse discrimination; Preferences; Affirmative Action ashio-midori.com · (Publisher) "In one volume all the essential tools: Overview of the topic, chronology of important events, glossary of terms, biographical listing, complete index, plus a fully annotated bibliography." ashio-midori.com It provided information about when affirmative action was enforced and who introduced the term “Affirmative Action.” Brunner, Borgna.
"Timeline of Affirmative Action Milestones.".