Taken from Vincent T. The transition of cells through the different stages from normal to cancerous can be thought of as an evolutionary process, in which there occurs a succession of genetic changes that undergo selection and determine the ultimate genotype genetic constitution of a tumour and its metastases. Many benign tumours are encased in a well-formed capsule.
However, there is a wide range of indirect suicidal behaviors in which death results gradually rather than immediately, and in which the degree of intentionality is less obvious than in an overt suicide attempt. Defining Indirect Suicidal Behavior Robert Kastenbaum and Brian Mishara, in their discussion of the concept of premature death and its relationship to self-injurious behavior, suggested that behaviors that shorten life are varied in form and widespread.
They recognized that in one sense all human behavior affects a person's life expectancy. Some obvious examples of potentially life-shortening behavior include smoking cigarettes, taking risks when driving, and ignoring doctors' orders.
On the other hand, life span can be prolonged by exercising regularly, eating well, using care when crossing the street, and driving an automobile in good condition equipped with air bags while always wearing a seat belt.
Indirect suicidal behavior is thus a matter of probabilities rather than certainties. Not taking one's heart medication or crossing the street carelessly will certainly increase the probability of a premature death.
However, the timing of the occurrence of a subsequent heart attack is unknown; some people cross recklessly and live a long life, while others are hit by a car and die the first time they are not careful. Similarly, smoking cigarettes is clearly associated with a reduction in life expectancy, and most people know this, including smokers.
However, as many smokers will point out, there is usually a case of a person someone knows who has smoked for decades and lived to old age. Suicides are often deemed indirect where there is no immediate and clearly identifiable intentionality.
The pioneer suicidologist Edwin Shneidman spoke of "subintentioned death" and "indirect suicide"p. He felt that orientations toward death, or "toward cessation," fall into four categories, which include intentioned, subintentioned, unintentioned, and contraintentioned.
Suicide is by definition generally considered to be intentioned. Accidental deaths are unintentioned, and his category of "contraintention" includes people who feign death and threaten death.
He specifies four groups of persons who have subintentional orientations. First, there is the "death-chancer" who gambles with death by doing things that leave death "up to chance.
The "death-hasteners" are individuals who unconsciously aggravate a physiological disequilibrium to hasten death. Death-hasteners may engage in a dangerous lifestyle, such as abusing the body, using alcohol or drugs, exposing themselves to the elements, or not eating a proper diet.
The "death-capitulators," by virtue of some strong emotion, play a psychological role in hastening their own demise. These people give in to death or "scare themselves to death.
Shneidman's fourth and final category is the "death-experimenter," who does not wish consciously to end his or her life but who appears to wish for a chronically altered or "befogged" state of existence.
This includes alcoholics and barbiturate addicts. Interpretations by Freud and His Followers Although Freud did not discuss indirect suicide, he developed the concept of the death instinct later in his life. It was his student Karl Menninger who elaborated on the concept of a death instinct, Thanatos, which he viewed as being in constant conflict with the opposing force of the life instinct, or Eros.
According to Menninger, there is an inherent tendency toward self-destruction that may, when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the life instincts, result in both direct and indirect self-destructive behavior. Norman Farberow expanded upon Menninger's theory and developed a classification system for what he called "indirect self-destructive behavior.
The impact of indirect self-destructive behaviors is most often long-term and frequently permanent, so that only the results are clearly apparent. Unlike direct suicidal behavior, indirect self-destructive behavior is not linked to a specific precipitating stress; hence this behavior is not sudden or impulsive.
Unlike completed suicides and suicide attempts, indirect self-destructive behavior does not entail a threat to end one's own life; nor does it involve clear messages that indicate a death wish. Indirect self-destructive people are generally self-concerned and unable to invest much of themselves in a relationship with significant others.
They are often alone and have limited social support systems. In contrast, the suicide attempts of the direct self-destructive are often related to the loss of a significant other.
Studies of Other Species Humans are the only species who engage in intentional self-destructive behavior. Philosophers generally limit the possibility of voluntary and intentional self-destruction to the human race.
Nevertheless, self-initiated behaviors that result in harm and death do occur in other species. These behaviors, while obviously self-destructive, do not have the characteristic of conscious decisionmaking that is unique to humans.
Nevertheless, they may ultimately result in injury or death. Researcher Jacqueline Crawley and her colleagues present a review of ethological observations of self-sacrificing deaths in some animal species—usually in defense of territory.
Parental behavior may be at the core of many altruistic behaviors, with parents in many species performing some forms of self-sacrifice for the survival of their offspring. When environmental conditions become stressful for animals, such as for those confined in zoos, self-mutilation and refusal to eat may result.RNA: RNA, complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses.
RNA consists of ribose nucleotides and the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Learn about the structure, types, and functions of RNA.
Explain the types of linked lists. The types of linked lists are: Singly linked list: It has only head part and corresponding references to the next nodes.
Doubly linked list: A linked list which both head and tail parts, thus allowing the traversal in bi-directional fashion. Except the first node, the head node refers to the previous node. An unrolled linked list is a linked list in which each node contains an array of data values.
This leads to improved cache performance, since more list elements are contiguous in memory, and reduced memory overhead, because less metadata needs to be stored for each element of the list. Nov 19, · Applications of Linked List data structure * Linked Lists can be used to implement Stacks, Queues.
* Linked Lists can also be used to implement Graphs. (Adjacency list representation of Graph). Of course, there are many different types of linked lists, like doubly linked, circular and many more.
You can modify them to suit your application. 1 Introduction.
R is a system for statistical computation and graphics. It provides, among other things, a programming language, high level graphics, interfaces to other languages and debugging facilities. A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time.
ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence.